Section: User Commands (1)
Updated: April 2010
Return to Main Contents
join - join lines of two files on a common field
[OPTION]... FILE1 FILE2
For each pair of input lines with identical join fields, write a line to
standard output. The default join field is the first, delimited
by whitespace. When FILE1 or FILE2 (not both) is -, read standard input.
- -a FILENUM
print unpairable lines coming from file FILENUM, where
FILENUM is 1 or 2, corresponding to FILE1 or FILE2
- -e EMPTY
replace missing input fields with EMPTY
- -i, --ignore-case
ignore differences in case when comparing fields
- -j FIELD
equivalent to `-1 FIELD -2 FIELD'
- -o FORMAT
obey FORMAT while constructing output line
- -t CHAR
use CHAR as input and output field separator
- -v FILENUM
like -a FILENUM, but suppress joined output lines
- -1 FIELD
join on this FIELD of file 1
- -2 FIELD
join on this FIELD of file 2
check that the input is correctly sorted, even
if all input lines are pairable
do not check that the input is correctly sorted
treat the first line in each file as field headers,
print them without trying to pair them
display this help and exit
output version information and exit
Unless -t CHAR is given, leading blanks separate fields and are ignored,
else fields are separated by CHAR. Any FIELD is a field number counted
from 1. FORMAT is one or more comma or blank separated specifications,
each being `FILENUM.FIELD' or `0'. Default FORMAT outputs the join field,
the remaining fields from FILE1, the remaining fields from FILE2, all
separated by CHAR.
Important: FILE1 and FILE2 must be sorted on the join fields.
E.g., use ` sort -k 1b,1 ' if `join' has no options,
or use ` join -t '' ' if `sort' has no options.
Note, comparisons honor the rules specified by `LC_COLLATE'.
If the input is not sorted and some lines cannot be joined, a
warning message will be given.
Written by Mike Haertel.
Report join bugs to firstname.lastname@example.org
GNU coreutils home page: <http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/>
General help using GNU software: <http://www.gnu.org/gethelp/>
Report join translation bugs to <http://translationproject.org/team/>
Copyright © 2010 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.
The full documentation for
is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If the
programs are properly installed at your site, the command
info coreutils 'join invocation'
should give you access to the complete manual.
- REPORTING BUGS
- SEE ALSO
This document was created by
using the manual pages.