Section: User Commands (1)
Updated: April 2010
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ln - make links between files
[OPTION]... [-T] TARGET LINK_NAME (1st form)
[OPTION]... TARGET (2nd form)
[OPTION]... TARGET... DIRECTORY (3rd form)
[OPTION]... -t DIRECTORY TARGET... (4th form)
In the 1st form, create a link to TARGET with the name LINK_NAME.
In the 2nd form, create a link to TARGET in the current directory.
In the 3rd and 4th forms, create links to each TARGET in DIRECTORY.
Create hard links by default, symbolic links with --symbolic.
When creating hard links, each TARGET must exist. Symbolic links
can hold arbitrary text; if later resolved, a relative link is
interpreted in relation to its parent directory.
Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.
make a backup of each existing destination file
like --backup but does not accept an argument
- -d, -F, --directory
allow the superuser to attempt to hard link
directories (note: will probably fail due to
system restrictions, even for the superuser)
- -f, --force
remove existing destination files
- -i, --interactive
prompt whether to remove destinations
- -L, --logical
make hard links to symbolic link references
- -n, --no-dereference
treat destination that is a symlink to a
directory as if it were a normal file
- -P, --physical
make hard links directly to symbolic links
- -s, --symbolic
make symbolic links instead of hard links
- -S, --suffix=SUFFIX
override the usual backup suffix
- -t, --target-directory=DIRECTORY
specify the DIRECTORY in which to create
- -T, --no-target-directory
treat LINK_NAME as a normal file
- -v, --verbose
print name of each linked file
display this help and exit
output version information and exit
The backup suffix is `~', unless set with --suffix or SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX.
The version control method may be selected via the --backup option or through
the VERSION_CONTROL environment variable. Here are the values:
Using -s ignores -L and -P. Otherwise, the last option specified controls
behavior when the source is a symbolic link, defaulting to -P.
- none, off
never make backups (even if --backup is given)
- numbered, t
make numbered backups
- existing, nil
numbered if numbered backups exist, simple otherwise
- simple, never
always make simple backups
Written by Mike Parker and David MacKenzie.
Report ln bugs to firstname.lastname@example.org
GNU coreutils home page: <http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/>
General help using GNU software: <http://www.gnu.org/gethelp/>
Report ln translation bugs to <http://translationproject.org/team/>
Copyright © 2010 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.
The full documentation for
is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If the
programs are properly installed at your site, the command
info coreutils 'ln invocation'
should give you access to the complete manual.
- REPORTING BUGS
- SEE ALSO
This document was created by
using the manual pages.